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Raspberry pi | First usage


Apache Setup Raspberry pi mini computer to dedicated game server. LAMP. Apache Raspberry pi mini computer. Dedicated game server.
That is simply just another http web server powered by Apache Software
and the Raspberry pi Foundation with Raspbian Debian OS Stretch Lite on it.

Essential security update regarding SSH


First, from now on SSH will be disabled by default on our images.

SSH (Secure SHell) is a networking protocol which allows you to remotely log into a Linux computer and control it from a remote command line. As mentioned above, many Pi owners use it to install a Pi headless (without screen or keyboard) and control it from another PC.

In the past, SSH was enabled by default, so people using their Pi headless could easily update their SD card to a new image. Switching SSH on or off has always required the use of raspi-config or the Raspberry pi configuration application, but to access those, you need a screen and keyboard connected to the Pi itself, which is not the case in headless applications. So we’ve provided a simple mechanism for enabling SSH before an image is booted.

The boot partition on a Pi should be accessible from any machine with SD card reader, on Windows, Mac, or Linux.

If you want to enable SSH, all you need to do is to put a empty file called ssh in the /boot/ directory.

When the Pi boots, it looks for this file; if it finds it, it enables SSH and then deletes the file. SSH can still be turned on or off from the Raspberry pi configuration application or raspi-config This is simply an additional way to turn it on if you can’t easily run either of those applications.

Source 🔗 The Raspberry pi Blog


Raspbian Debian Long Term Support (LTS)


Debian Long Term Support is a project to extend the lifetime of all Debian stable releases to (at least) 5 years. Debian LTS will not be handled by the Debian security team, but by a separate group of volunteers and companies interested in making it a success.


Version Support architecture Schedule
Debian 6 “Squeeze” i386 and amd64 until 29th of February 2016
Debian 7 “Wheezy” i386, amd64, armel and armhf from 26th April 2016 to 31st May 2018
Debian 8 “Stretch Lite” i386, amd64, armel and armhf (?) from June 2018 to end of April 2020
Debian 9 “Stretch” i386, amd64, armel and armhf (?) 2020 to June 2022

Why using a Raspberry pi mini computer


If you are looking for a way to make a cheap http server, primarily to be used as a testing environment or to store files, then the Raspberry pi is perfect for you.
What is a Raspberry pi? It is an inexpensive mini computer, perfect for basic functions. This guide will show you how to take a new Raspberry pi.


Please note that to this article, we will be working primarily under Microsoft Windows.


Hardware requirements


The Raspberry pi 2 Model B is the second generation Raspberry pi.
It replaced the original Raspberry pi 1 Model B+ in February 2015.
A 900MHz quad-core ARM Cortex-A7 CPU.
1GB RAM.
4 USB ports.
40 GPIO pins.
Full HDMI port.
Ethernet port.
Combined 3.5mm audio jack and composite video.
Camera interface (CSI).
Display interface (DSI).
Micro SD card slot.
VideoCore IV 3D graphics core.

Ethernet patchcable with standard RJ45 connectors or similar.








5V 2A Power Supply Micro USB AC Adapter Charger for Raspberry pi.
Note: Raspberry pis are fused normally with 1,1 [A].
Question: can I power the Raspberry from a USB hub?
Answer: it depends on the hub. Some hubs comply with the USB 2.0 standard and only provide 500 [mA] per port, which may power enough your Raspberry pi in the standalone mode.
Just give it a try for your needs if you got the right cable handy.




microSD 8GB Class 10 Memory Card inclusive SD adapter if needed.









Begin with the operating system Raspbian


Obtain a copy of the Raspberry pi RASPBIAN.
There are a few different distributions available, but for this article, we will use the "Raspbian" version.

Extract the image to the SD card. To do this, we need a tool called 🔗 Win32 Disc Imager.
Now open the tool, navigate to the correct drive letter that your SD card is in, select the location of the Raspberry pi OS image, and select [Write].

Once done writing, you can place the micro SD card into your Raspberry pi, then plug in the rest of the cables:
- LAN ethernet port Raspberry pi to LAN ethernet port Modem/Router
- plug in the Micro USB last (power supply)


Get the correct IP address


The Raspberry pi is automatically set to obtain an IP address from your wired or wireless network. Why does the Raspberry pi need an IP address? This address is needed so that any traffic destined for your Raspberry pi will be able to find it on the network.

If you have received a modem or router from your internet provider for your home network and DHCP is active we can obtain the IP address of the Raspberry pi there, then we must not connect a display and keyboard (headless use)

Access your modem / router and look in point "Home Network", which IP address with the name "raspberrypi" was awarded e.g. 192.168.178.36

or simply from the command prompt.

user@raspberry:~ $ ifconfig


        eth0    Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr b7:26:eb:67:5c:ce
                inet addr:192.168.178.36  Bcast:192.168.178.255  Mask:255.255.255.0
                ...
                ...
        

Remote access via PuTTy


I recommend to create a profile for your connection so you don't need to configure it every time you want to start it. Start Putty and type in the "Host Name (or IP address)" field the Raspberry PI's IP address (usually something like 192.168.0.xxx).
PuTTy logo


Download an SSH and telnet client like PuTTy 🔗 www.putty.org which is for free.


PuTTy is open source software that is available with source code and is developed and supported by a group of volunteers. A zip-file containing all the binaries, and also the help files.


If not already set, enter 22 as Port and select SSH as Protocol. Go to Connection & Data and type your Raspberry pi's username in Auto-Login username. Now your profile is complete, you can save it under Session by typing a name for your profile under Saved Sessions and clicking on the Save button.


To establish a connection to your Raspberry pi simply click on Load and Open. First timers usually a security warning. Confirm with Yes.

The default username is pi, and the default password is raspberry.


login as: pi
pi@192.168.178.36's password: raspberry
user@raspberry:~ $


Here's how you can use this command to switch to the root user


user@raspberry:~ $ sudo su
root@raspberry:~#


Configuration


root@raspberry:~# raspi-config


raspi-config is the Raspberry pi configuration tool. Read the official 🔗 documentation.

[CHANGE USER PASSWORD] as soon as possible.

Raspberry pi Config


Lower [MEMORY SPLIT] in [ADVANCED OPTIONS] down to 16MB if you operate in headless mode (without screen or keyboard).

[ADVANCED OPTIONS]
[SSH]

Enable remote command line access to your Raspberry pi using SSH.
SSH allows you to remotely access the command line of the Raspberry pi from another computer. Note that SSH is not enabled by default.


Essential Raspbian updates


You are running a fresh version of Debian, you will need to do some housecleaning and updating.
We are going to update update our sources, then upgrade any pre-installed packages.

Type the following at the command

user@raspberry:~ $ sudo su
root@raspberry:# apt-get update
root@raspberry:# apt-get upgrade
root@raspberry:# apt-get dist-upgrade
root@raspberry:# shutdown -r now


Alternatively


user@raspberry:~ $ sudo su
root@raspberry:# sudo apt-get update && apt-get upgrade && apt-get dist-upgrade
root@raspberry:# shutdown -r now


Tdy up the system


Package management via apt-get runs hand-in-hand with the /etc/apt/sources.list file. All of these commands must be run as root or with superuser privileges.

user@raspberry:~ $ sudo su


It removes all packages from the package cache.

root@raspberry:~# apt-get clean


This command removes .deb-files for packages that are no longer installed on your system. Depending on your installation habits, removing these iles from /var/cache/apt/Archive may regain a significant amount of diskspace.

root@raspberry:~# apt-get autoclean


This command removes packages that were installed by other packages and are no longer needed.

root@raspberry:~# apt-get autoremove


Or all together ...

root@raspberry:~# apt-get clean && apt-get autoclean && apt-get autoremove


This clears the bash command line history in terminal.


root@raspberry:~# history -c && history -w

Simple script to Raspbian updates & upgrades
        
        #!/bin/bash
        echo
        clear
        apt update && apt upgrade && apt dist-upgrade
        echo
        x=10
        while [ $x -gt 0 ]
        do
        sleep 1s
        echo "$x ..."
        x=$(( $x - 1 ))
        done
        sleep 1
        echo
        apt-get clean && apt-get autoclean && apt-get autoremove
        echo
        

Save the script as upd and make it executable.


root@raspberry:~# chmod 744 upd
root@raspberry:~# sh upd


Defragmentation


Typically you really don’t need to defrag, people aren’t totally off base when they say this. But if you’ve been deleting a ton of files and then adding a ton of files and really filling up large amounts of space on your drive you might want to defrag. Else no need to do.

22-Jun 2017


Rasberry Pi | What does the rpi-update tool do by Hexxeh


Upgrading to a newer version of Kernel.

Raspberry pi firmware updater by Hexxeh, enhanced by AndrewS and Dom


rpi-update is a tool to upgrade the firmware for your Raspberry pi mini computer.

Firmware is a small package of code that usually lives on a special chip of a computer that helps the software know how to talk to the hardware. However, in the case of the Raspberry pi, the firmware will live on the first partition of the SD card.


🔗 https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=29&t=197689

🔗 https://github.com/Hexxeh


user@raspberry:~ $ sudo su
root@raspberry:# rpi-update


        root@raspberry:# rpi-update
        *** Raspberry pi firmware updater by Hexxeh, enhanced by Andre ...
        *** Performing self-update
        *** Relaunching after update
        *** Raspberry pi firmware updater by Hexxeh, enhanced by Andre ...
        ############################################################## ...
        WARNING: This update bumps to rpi-4.14.y linux tree
        Be aware there could be compatibility issues with some drivers ...
        Discussion here:
        https://www.raspberrypi.org/forums/viewtopic.php?f=29&t=197689 ...
        ############################################################## ...
        Would you like to proceed? (y/N)
        *** Downloading specific firmware revision (this will take a f ...
        % Total    % Received % Xferd  Average Speed   Time    Time    
            Dload  Upload   Total   Spent    Left  Speed
            100   168    0   168    0     0    277      0 --:--:-- --: ...
            100 55.1M  100 55.1M    0     0  1455k      0  0:00:38  0: ...
        *** Updating firmware
        *** Updating kernel modules
        *** depmod 4.14.18-v7+
        *** depmod 4.14.18+
        *** Updating VideoCore libraries
        *** Using HardFP libraries
        *** Updating SDK
        *** Running ldconfig
        *** Storing current firmware revision
        *** Deleting downloaded files
        *** Syncing changes to disk
        *** If no errors appeared, your firmware was successfully upda ...
        *** A reboot is needed to activate the new firmware
        

root@raspberry:# shutdown -r now


        root@raspberry:# rpi-update
        *** Raspberry pi firmware updater by Hexxeh, enhanced by Andre ...
        *** Performing self-update
        *** Relaunching after update
        *** Raspberry pi firmware updater by Hexxeh, enhanced by Andre ...
        *** Your firmware is already up to date
        

The rpi-update tool is included in the Raspbian distribution of Linux because it is a useful software tool that manages the firmware of your Pi's. You should run it periodically to make sure your devices have the latest firmware. Separately, you need to keep your software up to date using the standard Raspbian software management tools like sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade.


Each of these functions is separate, and updating one will not update the other. Upgrading your distribution to the latest software packages might get you a new version of rpi-update, but unless you execute rpi-update your firmware will not get updated.


11-Feb 2018


Raspberry pi | Message of the day


Amend modt to display a custom message of the day for your Raspberry pi once you have successfully logged in.


root@raspberry:# nano /etc/motd


Clear everything and substitude with ...


        _______________________
        R A S P B E R R Y   P I
        
        

... or with whatever you want.


18-May 2018


tux cheering penguin gif animatedThe job is done.

Hafenzoll 2019